Animal Waste Management Systems Type A



An operator of a Type A animal waste management system should be able to:

Chapter 1: Why Are We Here?

  1. Explain the reasons for and requirements of certified operators for animal waste management systems.

  2. Define surface water, groundwater, and hydrologic cycle.

  3. Give examples of point source and nonpoint source pollution.

  4. Define the eutrophication process and problems it causes in surface waters.

  5. Explain the soil features that affect waste treatment.

  6. Describe what an aquifer is and how groundwater flows.

  7. Explain why animal waste is a resource.

  8. List several nonproducer concerns (such as community and environmental) of livestock, egg, and milk production. 

  9. Explain several consequences of mismanagement of an animal waste management system.


Chapter 2: System Components and OperationType A

  1. Describe the purpose and components of a Type A animal waste management system.

  2. Describe the function of an animal waste lagoon.

  3. Explain the need for proper lagoon sizing.

  4. Describe the six specific volumes for an anaerobic lagoon.

  5. Explain the need and use of a liquid level gauging device.

  6. Explain the need for lagoon liners and types available.

  7. Explain the need for proper pipe design, installation, and maintenance.

  8. Explain the need for year-round liquid waste management. 

  9. Explain the proper operation of an animal waste lagoon.

  10. Describe proper lagoon and dam maintenance.

  11. Describe the proper operation and maintenance of pumps.

  12. Describe the purpose of surface water diversions.

  13. Describe the proper startup procedure for an animal waste lagoon.

  14. Describe the conditions in a treatment lagoon that indicate the lack of biological activity.

  15. Explain why water reuse is important.

  16. Describe the proper methods of sludge removal.

  17. Explain the benefits of soil incorporation of animal waste.

  18. Explain methods to minimize crystal buildup in recycle pipes.

  19. Describe possible causes of lagoon failure.

  20. Describe some methods that could be used to enhance waste treatment.

  21. List several advantages of solids separation.

  22. Explain the use and maintenance of solids settling basins, traps, and mechanical separation devices.

  23. Explain the benefits of composting separated manure solids.

  24. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of a multistage lagoon.

  25. Describe the methods that can be used to minimize odors.

  26. Describe the need for a properly designed irrigation system.

  27. Describe the different components of traveling and stationary sprinkler systems.

  28. Explain the difference in operating characteristics for a taper bore nozzle versus a ring nozzle on a traveling gun sprinkler.

  29. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of stationary and traveling sprinkler systems.

  30. Describe the proper location in the lagoon of the intake pipe leading to an irrigation system.

  31. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of a pump and haul waste management system.


Chapter 3: Waste Management Plans

  1. Describe the primary goal of the waste utilization plan.

  2. List the four components of nutrient management in a waste utilization plan.

  3. List ways in which best management practices protect water quality.

  4. Calculate the amount of animal waste produced on your farm annually.

  5. Describe how you can determine nutrient content of liquids, slurries, and sludges.

  6. Define agronomic rate.

  7. Describe the priority nutrient concept.

  8. Describe the role of vegetation in waste management.

  9. List factors to consider in crop selection.

  10. Define realistic yield expectation (R.Y.E.).

  11. List the sources for realistic yield expectations for specific soil series.

  12. List cropping systems suitable for waste utilization in North Carolina.

  13. Describe why timing of waste applications is important.

  14. Identify factors affecting the timing of waste applications.

  15. Describe the importance of BMP maintenance and describe what to do if a BMP fails.


Chapter 4: Tools for the Plan

  1. Describe why the proper collection of waste samples is important.

  2. Describe why you should use actual data from a waste analysis instead of average estimates when determining waste application rates.

  3. Explain how often waste samples must be taken.

  4. Describe how to take a waste sample of a lagoon, waste slurry, or dry waste and submit it for nutrient analysis.

  5. Describe information available on a Waste Analysis Report.

  6. Interpret the waste analysis report and know if lab results are reasonable.

  7. Describe how to take a soil sample and submit for analysis.

  8. Describe information available on a Soil Test Report.

  9. Describe how soil test information can be used to select a site and determine the sustainability of long-term waste applications.

  10. Describe the role of plant tissue analysis in managing and monitoring forage quality.


Chapter 5: Proper Application of Waste ProductsType A

  1. List the necessary buffers for waste application. 

  2. Describe why wind speed and direction should be considered when irrigating.

  3. List the five factors that must be addressed before irrigating animal waste.

  4. Explain the importance of soil-water terms: saturation, field capacity, permanent wilting point, gravitational water, and plant-available water relative to irrigation scheduling.

  5. Describe techniques for determining the amount of water present in the soil and when to irrigate. 

  6. List five factors that may influence the amount of wastewater that can be irrigated.

  7. Explain the relevance of irrigation precipitation rate to soil infiltration capacity.

  8. Explain how to determine how much water to irrigate. 

  9. Explain how/why irrigation amounts need to be adjusted seasonally.

  10. Define precipitation rate, discharge rate, and application volume.

  11. Explain how to obtain sprinkler discharge rates.

  12. Explain the importance of sprinkler overlap.

  13. Compute the precipitation rate for a stationary sprinkler irrigation system.

  14. Compute the application volume for a stationary sprinkler irrigation system.

  15. Determine the operational time necessary to apply a desired application volume or nitrogen application amount.

  16. Determine precipitation rate and effective coverage from manufacturer’s literature for a traveling gun sprinkler.

  17. Compute the precipitation rate and application volume for a traveling gun sprinkler.

  18. Compute the required travel speed for a traveling gun sprinkler to apply the desired application volume.

  19. Explain what effect changing nozzle diameter can have on discharge rate and wetted diameter.

  20. Explain the effects of changing pressure on droplet size, drift, precipitation rate, and wetted sprinkler diameter.

  21. Explain why sprinkler systems should be field calibrated.

  22. Explain calibration procedures for stationary and traveling sprinklers.

  23. List factors that must be addressed before applying animal waste with spreader or tanker equipment.

  24. Describe calibration procedures for pump and haul waste management systems.


Chapter 6: Record Keeping

  1. Describe the importance of record maintenance.

  2. Describe what records need to be maintained to show compliance with environmental regulations.

  3. Describe what is to be done with records. 

  4. Calculate and verify application rates through the use of waste application records. 


Chapter 7: Safety and Emergency Action Plans

  1. Describe the health effects of gases associated with livestock buildings and manure storage. 

  2. Describe the steps for first aid to victims of asphyxiation.

  3. Explain the safety precautions for manure storage.

  4. Describe several safety precautions in regards to vehicle operation, heavy equipment, PTOs, and hydraulic systems. 

  5. Describe the responsibilities of the site supervisor.

  6. List the items that a safety program should include.

  7. List the topics that first aid training should include.

  8. Describe the responsibilities of the owner or employer.

  9. Describe the responsibilities of the employee.

  10. Give examples of personal protective equipment.

  11. Describe the correct way to lift and carry objects.

  12. Explain why personal hygiene is important.

  13. Define permit-required confined space entry. 

  14. Describe the safety actions that must be taken when working in a space that does not require a confined space permit.

  15. Describe the main components of an emergency action plan and why each is necessary.

  16. Describe the course of action that should be pursued should an emergency situation develop.

  17. List what information should be gathered when assessing the impact of a waste discharge.

  18. Explain who to contact and when should problems develop with the waste management system.

  19. Describe where the emergency action plan should be located and who should be aware of it.


Chapter 8: Consequences of Improper Management

  1. Define "discharge" of animal waste. 

  2. Define a 25-year, 24-hour storm.

  3. Describe the various types of regulatory action that can result from mismanagement.

  4. Describe the rules and laws that apply to animal waste management.

  5. List the threshold number of animals that require an animal operation to have a certified animal waste management plan.

  6. Describe the violations that require mandatory reporting. 

  7. Know which commission is responsible for the certification of animal waste management system operators.

  8. Describe the necessary steps required to renew your animal waste management system operator certification.

  9. Describe what enforcement actions can be taken against an operator by the commission.

  10. Describe why the commission may take an enforcement action against an operator.

  11. Describe the duties and requirements of owners of animal waste management systems.

  12. Describe the duties and requirements of an operator in charge of an animal waste management system.

  13. Explain why improper management can affect the owner and/or operator financially, with community relations, and with media coverage.

  14. Explain why excessive application of waste lowers land values, harms crops, and reduces fertilizer dollars.

  15. Explain why animal waste management is an important part of total farm management and animal production.

  16. Explain why it is important to maintain a "good neighbor policy."

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Last Modified: 29-Aug-2003