Appendix D: Odor and Insect
Control Checklist

 

Odor

On many operations, odor is likely to be the number one community issue for both producers and the general public. Because people can detect a smell they find offensive, they assume there is an environmental problem. What are some perceptions of swine odor that your neighbors and members of your community may have?

 

Sources of Odor

The good news is that odor can be managed by reducing sources of odor. Decomposing manure is the most obvious source. Generally, decomposing manure that has undergone some type of anaerobic (without oxygen) breakdown has a more offensive odor than fresh manure. The actual odor is the result of the type of ration, animal metabolism, and environmental conditions in which manure is stored and spread. Decomposing feed and carcasses can also contribute to odor.

 


 

Dairy Farm Waste Management Odor Control Checklist

Source

Cause

BMPs to Minimize Odor

Site Specific Practices

Farmstead
  • Dairy production
  • Vegetative or wooded buffers
  • Recommended best management practices
  • Good judgment and common sense
 
Paved lots or barn alley surfaces
  • Wet manure-covered surfaces
  • Scrape or flush daily
  • Promote drying with proper ventilation
  • Routine checks and maintenance on waterers, hydrants, pipes, stock tanks
 
Bedded areas
  • Urine
  • Partial microbial decomposition
  • Promote drying with proper ventilation
  • Replace wet or manure-covered bedding
 
Manure dry stacks
  • Partial microbial decomposition
  • Provide liquid drainage for stored manure
 
Storage tank or basin surface
  • Partial microbial decomposition
  • Mixing while filling
  • Agitation when emptying
  • Bottom or mid-level loading
  • Tank covers
  • Basin surface mats of solids
  • Minimize lot runoff and liquid additions
  • Agitate only prior to manure removal
  • Proven biological additives or oxidants
 
Settling basin surfaces
  • Partial microbial decomposition
  • Mixing while filling
  • Agitation when emptying
  • Liquid drainage from settled solids
  • Remove solids regularly
 
Manure, slurry, or sludge spreader outlets
  • Agitation when spreading
  • Volatile gas emissions
  • Soil injection of slurry/sludges
  • Wash residual manure from spreader after use
  • Proven biological additives or oxidants
 
Uncovered manure, slurry, or sludge on field surfaces
  • Volatile gas emissions while drying
  • Soil injection of slurry/sludges
  • Soil incorporation within 48 hours
  • Spread in thin uniform layers for rapid drying
  • Proven biological additives or oxidants
 
Flush tanks
  • Agitation of recycled lagoon liquid while tanks are filling
  • Flush tank covers
  • Extend fill lines to near bottom of tanks with anti-siphon vents
 
Outside drain collection or junction boxes
  • Agitation during wastewater conveyance
  • Box covers
 
Lift stations
  • Agitation during sump tank filling and drawdown
  • Sump tank covers
 
End of drainpipes at lagoon
  • Agitation during wastewater conveyance
  • Extend discharge point of pipes underneath lagoon liquid level
 
Lagoon surfaces
  • Volatile gas emission
  • Biological mixing
  • Agitation
  • Proper lagoon liquid capacity
  • Correct lagoon startup procedures
  • Minimum surface area-to-volume ratio
  • Minimum agitation when pumping
  • Mechanical aeration
  • Proven biological additives
 
Irrigation sprinkler nozzles
  • High pressure agitation
  • Wind drift
  • Irrigate on dry days with little or no wind
  • Minimum recommended operating procedure
  • Pump intake near lagoon liquid surface
  • Pump from second-stage lagoon
  • Flush residual manure from pipes at end of slurry/sludge pumpings
 
Dead animals
  • Carcass decomposition
  • Proper disposition of carcasses
 
Standing water around facilities
  • Improper drainage
  • Microbial decomposition of organic matter
  • Grade and landscape such that water drains away from facilities
 
Mud tracked onto public roads from farm access
  • Poorly maintained access roads
  • Farm access road maintenance
 

 

Additional Information: Available From :

Cattle Manure Management; .0200 Rule/BMP Packet

NCSU, County Extension Center

Dairy Educational Unit Manure Management System—Lake Wheeler Road Field Laboratory; EBAE 209-95

NCSU—BAE

Lagoon Design and Management for Livestock Manure Treatment and Storage; EBAE 103-83

NCSU—BAE

Management of Dairy Wastewater; EBAE 106-83

NCSU—BAE

Calibration of Manure and Wastewater Application Equipment; EBAE Fact Sheet

NCSU—BAE

Nuisance Concerns in Animal Manure Management: Odors and Flies; PRO107, 1995 Conference Proceedings

Florida Cooperative Extension

  


 

Swine Farm Waste Management Odor Control Checklist

Source

Cause

BMPs to Minimize Odor

Site Specific Practices

Farmstead
  • Swine production
  • Vegetative or wooded buffers
  • Recommended best management practices
  • Good judgment and common sense
 
Animal body surfaces
  • Dirty manure-covered animals
  • Dry floors
 
Floor surfaces
  • Wet manure-covered floors
  • Slotted floors
  • Waterers located over slotted floors
  • Feeders at high end of solid floors
  • Scrape manure buildup from floors
  • Underfloor ventilation for drying
 
Manure collection pits
  • Urine
  • Partial microbial decomposition
  • Frequent manure removal by flush, pit recharge, or scrape
  • Underfloor ventilation
 
Ventilation exhaust fans
  • Volatile gases
  • Dust
  • Fan maintenance
  • Efficient air movement
 
Indoor surfaces
  • Dust
  • Washdown between groups of animals
  • Feed additives
  • Feeder covers
  • Feed delivery downspout extenders to feeder covers
 
Flush tanks
  • Agitation of recycled lagoon liquid while tanks are filling
  • Flush tank covers
  • Extend fill lines to near bottom of tanks with anti-siphon vents
 
Flush alleys
  • Agitation during wastewater conveyance
  • Underfloor flush with underfloor ventilation
 
Pit recharge points
  • Agitation of recycled lagoon liquid while pits are filling
  • Extend recharge lines to near bottom of pits with anti-siphon vents
 
Lift stations
  • Agitation during sump tank filling and drawdown
  • Sump tank covers
 
Outside drain collection or junction boxes
  • Agitation during wastewater conveyance
  • Box covers
 
End of drainpipes at lagoon
  • Agitation during wastewater conveyance
  • Extend discharge point of pipes underneath lagoon liquid level
 
Lagoon surfaces
  • Volatile gas emissions
  • Biological mixing
  • Agitation
  • Proper lagoon liquid capacity
  • Correct lagoon startup procedures
  • Minimum surface area-to-volume ratio
  • Minimum agitation when pumping
  • Mechanical aeration
  • Proven biological additives
 
Irrigation sprinkler nozzles
  • High pressure agitation
  • Wind drift
  • Irrigate on dry days with little or no wind
  • Minimum recommended operating pressure
  • Pump intake near lagoon liquid surface
  • Pump from second-stage lagoon
 
Storage tank or basin surface
  • Partial microbial decomposition
  • Mixing while filling
  • Agitation when emptying
  • Bottom or midlevel loading
  • Tank covers
  • Basin surface mats of solids
  • Proven biological additives or oxidants
 
Settling basin surface
  • Partial microbial decomposition
  • Mixing while filling
  • Agitation when emptying
  • Extend drainpipe outlets underneath liquid level
  • Remove settled solids regularly
 
Manure, slurry, or sludge spreader outlets
  • Agitation when spreading
  • Volatile gas emissions
  • Soil injection of slurry/sludges
  • Wash residual manure from spreader after use
  • Proven biological additives or oxidants
 
Uncovered manure, slurry, or sludge on field surfaces
  • Volatile gas emissions while drying
  • Soil injection of slurry/sludges
  • Soil incorporation within 48 hours
  • Spread in thin uniform layers for rapid drying
  • Proven biological additives or oxidants
 
Dead animals
  • Carcass decomposition
  • Proper disposition of carcasses
 
Dead animal disposal pits
  • Carcass decomposition
  • Complete covering of carcasses in burial pits
  • Proper location/construction of disposal pits
 
Incinerators
  • Incomplete combustion
  • Secondary stack burners
 
Standing water around facilities
  • Improper drainage
  • Microbial decomposition of organic matter
  • Grade and landscape such that water drains away from facilities
 
Manure tracked onto public roads from farm access
  • Poorly maintained access roads
  • Farm access road maintenance
 

 

Additional Information: Available From:
Swine Manure Management; .0200 Rule/BMP Packet NCSU, County Extension Center
Swine Production Farm Potential Odor Sources and Remedies; EBAE Fact Sheet NCSU—BAE
Swine Production Facility Manure Management: Pit Recharge—Lagoon Treatment; EBAE 128-88 NCSU—BAE
Swine Production Facility Manure Management: Underfloor Flush—Lagoon Treatment; EBAE 129-88 NCSU—BAE
Lagoon Design and Management for Livestock Manure Treatment and Storage; EBAE 103-83 NCSU—BAE
Calibration of Manure and Wastewater Application Equipment; EBAE Fact Sheet NCSU—BAE
Controlling Odors from Swine Buildings; PIH-33 NCSU—Swine Extension
Environmental Assurance Program; NPPC Manual N.C. Pork Producers Assoc.
Options for Managing Odor; a report from the Swine Odor Task Force NCSU Agricultural Communications
Nuisance Concerns in Animal Manure Management: Odors and Flies; PRO107, 1995 Conference Proceedings Florida Cooperative Extension

 


 

Poultry Farm Waste Management Odor Control Checklist

Source

Cause

BMPs to Minimize Odor

Site Specific Practices

Farmstead
  • Poultry production
  • Vegetative or wooded buffers
  • Recommended best management practices
  • Good judgment and common sense
 
Floor surfaces (walk aisles)
  • Wet dirty surfaces
  • Scrape manure, dust, feathers into collection alleys
  • Splash boards along upper ends of collection alleys
  • Proper ventilation
 
Cage manure dropping boards
  • Manure-covered surfaces
  • Scrape manure into collection alleys
 
Manure collection alleys
  • Partial microbial decomposition
  • Frequent manure removal by flush or scrape
  • Frequent checks and maintenance on waterers and water pipes
 
Ventilation exhaust fans
  • Volatile gases
  • Dust
  • Fan maintenance
  • Efficient air movement
 
Indoor surfaces
  • Dust
  • Vacuum or washdown between flocks
 
Manure conveyors
  • Partial microbial decomposition
  • Keep mechanical equipment in good repair
  • Remove manure accumulations promptly
 
Storage tank or basin surface
  • Partial microbial decomposition
  • Mixing while filling
  • Agitation when emptying
  • Bottom or midlevel loading
  • Tank covers
  • Basin surface mats of solids
  • Proven biological additives or oxidants
 
Manure slurry or sludge spreader outlets
  • Agitation when spreading
  • Volatile gas emissions
  • Soil injection of slurry/sludges
  • Wash residual manure from spreader after use
  • Proven biological additives or oxidants
 
Uncovered manure slurry or sludge on field surfaces
  • Volatile gas emissions while drying
  • Soil injection of slurry/sludges
  • Soil incorporation within 48 hours
 
Outside drain collection or junction boxes
  • Agitation during wastewater conveyance
  • Box covers
 
Lift stations
  • Agitation during sump tank filling and drawdown
  • Sump tank covers
 
End of drainpipes at lagoon
  • Agitation during wastewater conveyance
  • Extend discharge point of pipes underneath lagoon liquid level
 
Lagoon surfaces
  • Volatile gas emissions
  • Biological mixing
  • Agitation
  • Proper lagoon liquid capacity
  • Correct lagoon startup procedures
  • Minimum surface area-to-volume ratio
  • Minimum agitation while pumping
  • Mechanical aeration
  • Proven biological additives
 
Irrigation sprinkler nozzles
  • High pressure agitation
  • Wind drift
  • Irrigate on dry days with little or no wind
  • Minimum recommended operating procedure
  • Pump intake near lagoon liquid surface
  • Pump from second-stage lagoon
 
Dead birds
  • Carcass decomposition
  • Proper disposition of carcasses
 
Dead bird disposal pits
  • Carcass decomposition
  • Complete covering of carcasses in burial pits
  • Proper location/construction of disposal pits
  • Disposal pit covers tight fitting
 
Standing water around facilities
  • Improper drainage
  • Microbial decomposition of organic matter
  • Grade and landscape such that water drains away from facilities
 
Mud tracked onto public roads from farm access
  • Poorly maintained access roads
  • Farm access road maintenance
 

 

Additional Information: Available From:
Poultry Manure Management; .0200 Rule/BMP Packet NCSU, County Extension Center
Poultry Layer Production Facility Manure Management: High Rise, Deep Pit; EBAE 131-88 NCSU—BAE
Poultry Layer Production Facility Manure Management: Undercage Flush—Lagoon Treatment; EBAE 130-88 NCSU—BAE
Lagoon Design and Management for Livestock Manure Treatment and Storage; EBAE 103-83 NCSU—BAE
Calibration of Manure and Wastewater Application Equipment; EBAE Fact Sheet NCSU—BAE
Proper Disposal of Dead Poultry; PS&T Guide No. 19 NCSU—Poultry Science
Nuisance Concerns in Animal Manure Management: Odors and Flies; PRO107, 1995 Conference Proceedings Florida Cooperative Extension

 


 

Insect Control Checklist for Animal Operations

Source

Cause

BMPs to Control Insects

Site Specific Practices

Liquid Systems

Flush gutters
  • Accumulation of solids
  • Flush system is designed and operated sufficiently to remove accumulated solids from gutters as designed
  • Remove bridging of accumulated solids at discharge
 
Lagoons and pits
  • Crusted solids
  • Maintain lagoons, settling basins and pits where pest breeding is apparent to minimize the crusting of solids to a depth of no more than 6 to 8 inches over more than 30 percent of surface
 
Excessive vegetative growth
  • Decaying vegetation
  • Maintain vegetative control along banks of lagoons and other impoundments to prevent accumulation of decaying vegetative matter along water’s edge on impoundment’s perimeter.
 

Dry Systems

Feeders
  • Feed spillage
  • Design, operate, and maintain feed systems (e.g., bunkers and troughs) to minimize the accumulation of decaying wastage
  • Clean up spillage on a routine basis (e.g., 7- to 10-day interval during summer; 15- to 30-day interval during winter)
 
Feed storage
  • Accumulations of feed residues
  • Reduce moisture accumulation within and around immediate perimeter of feed storage areas by ensuring drainage is away from site and/or providing adequate containment (e.g., covered bin for brewer’s grain and similar high moisture grain products)
  • Inspect for and remove or break up accumulated solids in filter strips around feed storage as needed
 
Animal holding areas
  • Accumulations of animal wastes and feed wastage
  • Eliminate low areas that trap moisture along fences and other locations where waste accumulates and disturbance by animals is minimal
  • Maintain fence rows and filter strips around animal holding areas to minimize accumulations of wastes (i.e., inspect for and remove or break up accumulated solids as needed)
 
Dry manure handling systems
  • Accumulations of animal wastes
  • Remove spillage on a routine basis (e.g., 7- to 10-day interval during summer; 15- to 30-day interval during winter) where manure is loaded for land application or disposal
  • Provide for adequate drainage around manure stockpiles
  • Inspect for and remove or break up accumulated wastes in filter strips around stockpiles and manure handling areas as needed
 

 

For more information contact:

Cooperative Extension Service, Department of Entomology, Box 7613, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7613.


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